What Is the Name of a Group of Plants Whose Seeds Are Not Surrounded by Fruit?
Seed production is vital to the survival of plants. The plant world consists of both cone-bearing and fruit-bearing plants. These plants differ in their seed structures, leaf forms and pollination methods. Cone-bearing plants are easily recognized by their cones and needlelike leaves and fruit-bearing plants by their flowers and fruits. Cone-bearing plants are known as gymnosperms and fruit-bearing plants are termed angiosperms.
A gymnosperm’s seeds are open to the environment. The word “gymnosperm” means “naked seed” and the seeds are not enclosed inside fruit, but are instead exposed or on the scales of cones, like a pine cone. The leaf structures of gymnosperms and angiosperms differ. Gymnosperms, or cone-bearers, produce needlelike leaves with a thick waxy coating. Cone-bearers are woody evergreens, like spruces, pines and firs and do not lose their leaves.
Angiosperms seeds are enclosed in fruit and include flowering plants. The male flowers are often small, while female flowers are larger. Once these flowering plants are pollinated, the flower and its reproductive parts dry up and fall away and the plant develops fruit or enclosed seeds. Flowering plants often have flat leaves with veins. These are deciduous plants, which means the leaves change color in the fall and drop from the tree. The trees grow new leaves each spring. Some flowering plants do retain their leaves, such as live oak and rhododendron.
Differences in Pollination
Pollination is different for cone-bearing and fruit-bearing plants. Cone-bearing gymnosperm plants are pollinated by the wind, while fruit-bearing plants are often pollinated by bees and other insects that carry pollen from plant to plant. Cone bearers’ female cones can take years to mature, while flowering plants mature faster than cone-bearers, which means the flower-bearing angiosperms are able to produce more seeds. This is why flower-bearers make up the largest percentage of the plant kingdom.
Types of Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms consist of four categories or phyla that include cycads, ginkgo, conifers and gnetophytes. Conifers are the largest group or phyla of gymnosperms and include fir, spruce, pine, cedar and redwood trees. Cycads are made up of plants that are cone-bearing, but produce palm-like leaves. Cycads grow mostly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Ginkgo consists of one plant that is native to China and gnetophytes are plants that develop deep tap roots and above ground leaves and cones.
What Is the Name of a Group of Plants Whose Seeds Are Not Surrounded by Fruit?. Seed production is vital to the survival of plants. The plant world consists of both cone-bearing and fruit-bearing plants. These plants differ in their seed structures, leaf forms and pollination methods. Cone-bearing plants are easily …
DK Science: Seed Plants
Most plants grow from seeds. These seed plants fall into two groups, angiosperms and gymnosperms. Angiosperms are the flowering plants. Their seeds develop inside a female reproductive part of the flower, called the ovary, which usually ripens into a protective FRUIT. Gymnosperms (conifers, Ginkgo, and cycads) do not have flowers or ovaries. Their seeds mature inside cones. Seeds may be carried away from the parent plant by wind, water, or animals.
Dandelion seeds have feathery parachutes to help them fly far from their parent plant. A dandelion flower is actually made up of many small flowers, called florets. Each develops a single fruit. The fruits form inside the closed-up seed head, after the yellow petals have withered away. When the weather is dry, the seed head opens, revealing a ball of parachutes. The slightest breeze lifts the parachutes into the air.
INSIDE A SEED
A seed is the first stage in the life cycle of a plant. Protected inside the tough seed coat, or testa, is the baby plant, called an embryo. Food, which fuels germination and growth, is either packed around the embryo or stored in special seed leaves, called cotyledons.
SPREADING WITHOUT SEEDS
Seeds are not the only means of reproduction. Some plants create offshoots of themselves – in the form of bulbs, tubers, corms, or rhizomes – that can grow into new plants. This type of reproduction is called vegetative reproduction. As only one parent plant is needed, the offspring is a clone of its parent.
A bulb is an underground bud with swollen leaf bases. Its food store allows flowers and leaves to grow quickly. New bulbs develop around the old one.
A tuber is a swollen stem or root with buds on its surface. When conditions are right, the tuber’s food store allows the buds to grow.
A corm is a swollen underground stem that provides energy for a growing bud. After the food in the old corm is used up, a new corm forms above it.
A rhizome is a horizontal stem that grows underground or on the surface. It divides and produces new buds and shoots along its branches.
GERMINATION OF A RUNNER BEAN
Most seeds require damp, warm conditions in order to sprout. During germination, the seed absorbs water and the embryo starts to use its food store. A young root, or radicle, begins to grow downward. Then a young shoot, or plumule, grows upward. This develops into the stem and produces leaves. The first leaves, called seed leaves or cotyledons, fuel the early growth until the plant’s true leaves appear.
A flower’s ovary usually develops into a fruit to protect the seeds and help disperse them. A fruit may be succulent (fleshy) or dry. Fruit is often tasty and colourful to attract fruit-eating animals. Its seeds can pass through an animal unharmed, falling to the ground in droppings. Seeds may also be dispersed on animals’ coats, by the wind, or by the fruit bursting open.
The seeds of dry fruits are dispersed in various ways. Peapods are dry fruits that split and shoot out their seeds by force. The hogweed fruit forms a papery wing around the seed, helping it to float on the breeze. The strawberry is a false fruit, but it is covered by tiny dry fruits, each with a seed.
Fleshy, brightly coloured, and often scented, succulent fruits are designed to attract the animals that eat and disperse them. Fleshy fruits such as apricots and cherries have a woody stone or pip that protects the seed. Called drupes, these fruits form from a single ovary. Many drupes, formed from many ovaries, may cluster to form a compound fruit, such as a raspberry.
Most plants grow from seeds. These seed plants fall into two groups, angiosperms and gymnosperms. Angiosperms are the flowering plants. Their seeds de