What weed smokers need to know before going into surgery
One day in 2016, Jennie awoke to sharp pain and a tugging sensation on the left side of her jaw вЂ” “like my jaw was being pulled off my head,” she recalls вЂ” along with the firm pressure of hands holding her mouth agape. She opened her eyes just enough to see human silhouettes hovering over her. Her body felt heavy, but also like it was floating; she tried to lift her arms, but all she could do was wriggle. What was going on? she wondered, scared.
вЂњSheвЂ™s waking up,вЂќ a male voice said. It was around then that Jennie remembered: She was in the dentistвЂ™s office, getting her wisdom teeth pulled. She must have awoken during the procedure. Almost as soon as she realized what was happening, the anesthesia pulled her back into sleep.
Jennie had been smoking weed at least once a day for the past four years. She smoked with her fiancГ© the day of her wisdom tooth extraction. вЂњI had no idea it was going to affect the anesthesia,вЂќ says the 35-year-old, who lives in Arizona. (She requested that Mic publish only her first name out of concern for the legal repercussions of her weed use, since Arizona prohibits recreational cannabis.) Indeed, as legalization sweeps across the country, evidence has emerged that regular marijuana users need more anesthesia for surgery than non-users to ensure they become, and stay, sedated and don’t awaken mid-procedure. In plain, very urgent, English: If you consume cannabis on the reg, you need to let your doctor know before you go under for surgery.
Along with anecdotal reports, a 2019 study found that patients who reported smoking weed or ingesting edibles on a daily or weekly basis needed more than double the amount of the anesthetic propofol for endoscopic procedures (like colonoscopies) than non-users. They also needed 19.6% more midazolam and 14% more fentanyl.
Why marijuana increases your need for anesthesia remains unclear, largely because of its status as a federally illegal drug, which makes it difficult to research, Jeffrey Uppington, an anesthesiologist at UC Davis Medical Center, tells Mic. ItвЂ™s possible that compounds in weed called cannabinoids вЂ” which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, which is responsible for making you feel high) вЂ” affect the same receptors in the brain and spinal cord as anesthesia drugs do.
But, вЂњthatвЂ™s more speculation than we really know,вЂќ Uppington says. вЂњThe bottom line is, if youвЂ™re a chronic user of marijuana, you are more resistant to anesthetics, both those that put you to sleep, like propofol, and those that keep you asleep, like various anesthesia gases.вЂќ
Thanks to modern-day monitors that measure brain waves and other vitals, an anesthesiologist can likely spot when a patient is about to awaken and give them more drugs before they reach that point, Uppington says. But even if you donвЂ™t wake up during a procedure, you can still have issues. If you routinely smoke weed, your airway might be more reactive during anesthesia. You might cough more, experience bronchial spasms, and/or have a more active gag reflex, which is a problem if you need to be intubated, as with general anesthesia (the kind that puts you to sleep).
“If youвЂ™re a chronic user of marijuana, you are more resistant to anesthetics, both those that put you to sleep, like propofol, and those that keep you asleep, like various anesthesia gases.”
After surgery, you might also experience more pain, which may nudge you toward using more opioids and increase your risk of addiction to these substances, says David Hepner, the medical director of the Weiner Center for Preoperative Evaluation at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and an associate professor of anaesthesia at Harvard Medical School.
High doses of anesthesia also carry risks, such as causing significant drops in blood pressure, which may lead to a heart attack in at-risk patients, They may also delay awakening, Hepner tells Mic. For instance, propofol usually wears off in about five to 10 minutes but a marijuana user who requires a higher dose may take longer to awaken, delaying them from resuming their normal, day-to-day life.
JennieвЂ™s wisdom tooth extraction left her so groggy that she needed to be transported to her car by wheelchair, and she doesnвЂ™t remember anything from the 45-minute ride home. As her fiancГ© drove, she drifted in and out of sleep, and didnвЂ™t feel like herself again for another three hours. In contrast, a friend she drove home after a dental procedure was a little groggy, but could walk to his car and felt fine when he got home, probably because he wasn’t a cannabis user, and therefore didn’t require as much anesthesia.
The amount of cannabis you need to consume for it increase your resistance to anesthesia remains unclear, though. Determining this threshold is tricky, thanks to the varying concentrations of THC from one product to the next, how long you hold the smoke in your lungs, and the many other variables involved, Uppington says. But itвЂ™s probably safe to say that using cannabis every day for a few years is more likely to affect your response to anesthesia than using it just once.
If you do smoke cannabis regularly, tell your anesthesiologist how much and how often, as well as the last time you smoked, Uppington says. They can then assess whether your use could increase your risk of being resistant to anesthesia and make adjustments accordingly.
While disclosing your weed use may feel embarrassing or even dangerous, remember that your doctorвЂ™s job isnвЂ™t to judge you, Hepner says. вЂњWe just want to understand the health of the patient and how the body may react to different medications to give them the most pain-free procedure.вЂќ He adds that itвЂ™s also important to mention any other substances or medications youвЂ™re taking, since they, too, may react with the anesthesia. Since physicians take an oath to protect patient confidentiality, they wouldnвЂ™t disclose your use of cannabis or other substances to your family, law enforcement, or anyone other than the medical professionals directly involved in your care.
No matter how often you consume cannabis, though, donвЂ™t use it at all on the day of your procedure, Hepner says. Taking an edible on the same day poses the added risk of inhaling it, which may result in a life-threatening lung infection called aspiration pneumonia. And if you come into the clinic high AF, you can pretty much count on your surgery being cancelled. Uppington recommends hitting pause for as many days as you can before your surgery, ideally a month, which is how long it takes for cannabis to be fully removed from the body.
Awakening mid-wisdom tooth extraction was eye-opening for Jennie. Since her doctor didnвЂ™t ask her specifically about her drug use, and she didnвЂ™t think smoking weed wouldn’t matter for her surgery, she didnвЂ™t mention it; in fact, she worried that if she did, she wouldnвЂ™t be allowed to undergo the procedure. вЂњIn the future, I would definitely inform my doctor of my cannabis use,вЂќ she says.
This article was originally published on Jan. 31, 2020
One day in 2016, Jennie awoke to sharp pain and a tugging sensation on the left side of her jaw вЂ” "like my jaw was being pulled off my head," she recalls вЂ” along with the firm pressure of hands holding her mouth agape. She opened her eyes justвЂ¦
How Marijuana Can Affect Your Surgery
Scott Sundick, MD, is a board-certified vascular and endovascular surgeon. He currently practices in Westfield, New Jersey.
If you smoke marijuana and are planning to have surgery you may be wondering if you need to stop smoking before your procedure. Like smoking cigarettes, the short answer is this: Yes, quitting today may improve your surgical outcome, how quickly you get out of the hospital, and how quickly you heal after surgery.
Marijuana Before Surgery
Like nicotine, marijuana can complicate surgery and should be avoided in the weeks and even months prior to your procedure. Much like smoking cigarettes, abstaining from marijuana in the weeks before surgery can decrease the likelihood of complications during and after surgery.
Unfortunately, research on the topic of marijuana use and the effects during surgery is limited. It should become more plentiful in the future as medicinal marijuana has been legalized in multiple states (and recreational use in a growing number), making it easier to gather scientific data on the topic.
We do know that marijuana, while effective for decreasing nausea and some other health-related benefits, has the potential to interact with anesthesia.
Risks of Smoking Marijuana
Contrary to popular wisdom, marijuana smoking is not a healthier option than cigarettes. It can lead to lung cancer and other respiratory problems.
The process of inhaling large amounts of marijuana, then holding it in the lungs for extended periods of time to increase the amount absorbed, leads to increased exposure to cancer-causing chemicals.
The chronic coughing, wheezing and difficulty breathing that long-term cigarette smokers experience also occur in marijuana users.
Types of Marijuana
When talking about surgery anesthesia and marijuana, all types of marijuana should be avoided. That means smoking marijuana, edibles, and synthetic marijuana.
Synthetic marijuana, in particular, is poorly understood, unregulated, and highly variable in content. For this reason, it is impossible to predict the reaction that might occur with exposure to anesthesia. Synthetic marijuana should not be used in the days, or even weeks, prior to surgery.
Marijuana and Anesthesia
Smoking marijuana regularly leads to the same risks of complications faced by patients who smoke cigarettes. This means that marijuana smokers are more likely than non-smokers to be on the ventilator longer, have a higher risk of developing pneumonia after surgery, and greater scarring of incisions.
The use of marijuana, especially immediately prior to surgery, can change the doses needed for sedation. One commonly used medication, propofol, requires substantially higher doses for the patient who routinely uses marijuana.
One study looked at the doses of propofol required to intubate patients who routinely smoked marijuana with non-marijuana using patients. The individuals who used marijuana required a dramatic increase in sedation.
One patient who smoked marijuana 4 hours prior to surgery was the topic of a case study, after experiencing an airway obstruction during the procedure. This is a very serious complication that can lead to death, and is believed to have been caused by airway hyperreactivity, a condition known in cigarette smokers but previously unidentified in marijuana users.
It is also believed that regular users of marijuana—whether it is smoked or eaten—are more likely to experience agitation.
Marijuana Effects During Surgery
The use of marijuana the day before surgery, and especially in the hours prior to the procedure, can cause more dramatic effects. While some people are tempted to use marijuana prior to surgery in an effort to relax or be less stressed before the procedure, this is a very bad idea and can cause problems.
Marijuana causes the blood vessels of the body to relax, a process called vasodilation. This process can cause the blood pressure to fall and the heart rate to increase. These, in turn, can complicate matters if the patient’s blood pressure is falling due to issues with the surgery, and can change the way the body responds to anesthesia.
Tell the Truth About Marijuana Use
It is very important that you are candid with the anesthesia provider about your personal use of marijuana. This means giving an accurate report of how much and how often you use marijuana, whether you eat it or smoke it, and when you last did so.
It is unlikely that your use will delay your surgery, but it is important that the anesthesia provider understands the potential for your body to need more anesthetic than is typical.
The anesthesia provider also needs to be prepared for any airway issues that may arise, which are more common in smokers of all types compared to non-smokers.
Regular marijuana use, like cigarette and cigar use, can increase the length of time it takes to be removed from the ventilator after surgery. The risk of being on the ventilator long term is decreased by quitting smoking before surgery, and that risk is decreased further with every day that passes between the last day of smoking and the day of surgery.
A Word From Verywell
It may seem like a drag—pardon the pun—to stop smoking marijuana before surgery and to not smoke during your recovery from surgery, but you will heal faster, return to your normal activities more quickly, have less scarring and fewer complications if you refrain.
It is true that most people would have quit smoking long ago if it were easy, but surgery offers a real incentive to back away from the marijuana (and nicotine) in order to have the best possible outcome after surgery.
Every day you go without smoking prior to surgery will decrease your chances of being on the ventilator longer than the average patient, and will decrease the length of your stay in the hospital.
Smoking pot before surgery can cause problems during and after your procedure, find out why you should avoid marijuana before surgery.