Sexing cannabis plants is really just finding out whether they are male or female, this can be very important for various reasons, ranging from a breeding proje Male vs Female Cannabis Cannabis is a dioecious plant, which means it has male and female flowers on separate plants. When the male plant enters the reproductive stage, it will develop male pollen sacs. The female plant will produce flowers ready to accept the pollen. This also means that cannabis is not true to seed,
How To Tell Sex Of Your Cannabis Plants
How to sex male and female Cannabis plants, the different characteristics to look out for and what to consider.
- 1. The first signs of pre-flowers
- 2. Male plant characteristics
- 3. Female plant characteristics
- 4. Hermaphrodite plant characteristics
- 5. Using feminized seeds or clones
- 5. a. The benefits
- 6. In conclusion
Sexing cannabis plants is really just finding out whether they are male or female, this can be very important for various reasons, ranging from a breeding project to extensive phenotype hunting. Knowing how and when to tell if your plants are male or female will give you an advantage when growing indoors. In this article, we explain how to tell the sex of your Cannabis plants, what traits to look for, and what can go wrong.
1. The First Signs of Pre-Flowers
When growing from seed, Cannabis plants will spend the earliest stage of their life cycle focusing on the root, leaf, and stem production. On the basis that a grower keeps a plant growing under 18 hours of light with high humidity levels of close to 75%, for 5-6 weeks then the plants will begin to show preflowers.
After your plants grow to the 6th or 7th internode, you will be able to identify by eye potential male or female traits. Cannabis plants that are put into flowering from the seedling stage, will still require 3-4 weeks before the first signs of pre-flowers appear. These are the very first signs of the Cannabis plant’s sex and will either be a tiny male or female pre-flower. Some cultivars may produce pre-flowers faster than others, however, all plants will reveal themselves around the same time. There is absolutely no need to worry about identifying male plants early on, as they will not be able to produce pollen until a much later time.
2. Male Plant Characteristics
The number one fear any beginner grower has when working with regular sex seedlings is to allow a male to pollinate the entire crop. There is no need to be concerned if your intention is to pheno hunt all the female plants, as removing males before they produce sacs will cause no need for concern. Male Cannabis plants will produce pre-flowers in the same places as the females. Not only does this make distinguishing between the two early on even more difficult, but it may also take a few weeks before you can completely confirm you have a male plant.
You will notice between the upper internodes, there will be a small cluster of miniature oval-shaped balls. As they mature, you will notice they are attached to a tiny stem and will become bigger and turn green. It is best to wait until you can identify the male characteristics, before throwing any plants out of the garden. Do not be overzealous and potentially discard a female plant.
3. Female Plant Characteristics
It is much easier to spot a female preflower, as you are only looking for a thin, hair-shaped pistil. When these emerge from between the internodes, they will look like a white eyelash or a tiny blade of grass. Over time, white hairs will begin to grow amongst the new growth and can be very hard to spot. Double-check what you identify as the female preflower, and wait until you can clearly see a white pistil.
After the first signs of pistils emerge, over the following weeks, the female plants will begin to display an abundance of pistils. This is where plants require higher amounts of Phosphorus and Potassium encouraging flower production and producing buds. It is best to use a magnifying glass, or loupe for checking trichomes to double-check. It may take a week or two before you can confidently say you have a female.
4. Hermaphrodite Plant Characteristics
So, we have gone over both male and female cannabis plants, and how to differentiate between the two. But, there is a third “gender” option when it comes to cannabis plants – hermaphrodites. Hold up, what the hell is a hermaphrodite cannabis plant? A hermaphrodite (hermie is the common term used in cannabis cultivation) plant develops both male and female reproductive traits. This is a natural feature of cannabis, and it is thought that it happens when the plant becomes stressed or injured. This feature ensures the survival of the specific plant’s genetic code, as the plant can pollinate itself.
But, if you are growing cannabis for consumption then the last thing you want is your crop to turn into hermies. Just one hermie put the entire crop at risk of pollination, which is bad for a few reasons. Pollinated female cannabis plants put a lot of their energy production into seed creation, which means the quality of your buds, the size of the yield, and your satisfaction with the entire cultivation process is at risk.
How do you stop your plants from turning into hermies?
There are two main factors that can affect a plant’s sex – environmental stress and genetics. Some strains of cannabis (pure Sativas in particular) seem to be much more susceptible to hermaphroditism. In recent years seed banks and commercial growers have gone a long way in trying to breed this genetic anomaly out of the pool, and at this point, it is not something you should worry about if you are buying your seeds from a reputable source (hint – buy them from us, we ensure a zero percent chance of genetic hermies in our seeds). But, even with the best possible genetics, a plant can turn into a hermie through environmental stress or injury. The golden rule is to avoid all types of stress during the flowering period. Let’s list out the types of situations that might cause a healthy female plant to turn into a hermie:
- Excessive heat (above 28C) in the grow room
- Over-fertilizing your crop
- Watering your plants with water that is either too cold or too hot. Always water your plants with room temp water
- Changes to the light periods. Power cuts can quickly turn a whole grow room into hermies if not remedied quickly
- Damage to the plant itself. Always be super careful when practicing defoliation and never take more than about 30% of the fan leaves off at any one time.
- Over or under watering can also cause this issue to occur.
If you do suspect that you have a hermie in your crop, the best thing to do is to just remove it and (unfortunately) kill it. If the plant is already a fair way into its flowering period when you realize it is a hermie then you have two options. If it has only produced a few small male pollen sacs then they can be removed carefully. Separate the hermie plant from the rest of the crop and use tweezers to carefully remove the sac without them popping. If has already grown multiple pollen sacks, it’s time to eliminate it.
5. Using Feminized Seeds or Clones
The only sure way to determine sex before your plants reach maturity is to clone the plant. This could be achieved by taking a clone from any plant. Growing with Cannabis seeds or clones, that are guaranteed to be all-female, has many advantages from the small-scale bedroom grower, to the large commercial ones.
Clones share the same DNA as the plant where it was taken from, the clone will show the sex of the mother plant.
Cut one of the branches then put it into a small cup with medium and let grow for a few days. After the clone’s roots have developed a bit, place it under a 12/12 life cycle. Soon, the plant will reach maturity and show its sex, because clones share the same DNA as the plant where it was taken from, the clone will show the sex the main plant has. Remember that this cannot be used with autoflowers because they start flowering based on age and not photoperiod. If you are not working on a breeding project and your goal is to grow as many female plants as possible, then using feminized seeds or clones is the most practical route to take.
- This will guarantee that the plants you produce will be 100% female, meaning that prior to flowering, there is no requirement to pull plants out of the grow room. This eliminates any waste of space, nutrients, and growing medium.
- Large-scale Sea of Green operations can be set up, without the need to worry about any male plants. This means the crop will not be cross-contaminated with pollen and become seeded and commercially useless.
- Working with clones is an excellent way to grow something that has already been verified. Usually, highly desirable clones can be vouched for by another grower or will have lots of information to research online.
6. In Conclusion
Knowing how to identify male and female Cannabis plants when using regular seeds, is vital to ensuring an all-female crop is maintained. We recommend you take your time before throwing out any plants and be prepared to allow male plants to mature enough to see their pollen sacs forming.
Sexing Cannabis Seeds
Sexing cannabis seeds is vital for success. Whether a sensimilla grower or seed breeder it is important to know the boys from the girls.
Male vs Female Cannabis
Cannabis is a dioecious plant, which means it has male and female flowers on separate plants. When the male plant enters the reproductive stage, it will develop male pollen sacs. The female plant will produce flowers ready to accept the pollen. This also means that cannabis is not true to seed, i.e. seeds from a cross pollination will not directly represent the flowers they originated from and instead contain genetic material from both the mother and father plant. Because cannabis has both male and female sexes, you need to identify and understand the differences. Cannabis gender cannot be identified by seed or growth patterns and the only reliable method is to observe the reproductive organs that develop.
Growing for weed or seed
When you begin your growing journey, you will need to decide what your goal is. If you want to grow flowers for consumption or processing, you will want to ensure you only grow female plants that do not get pollinated. Seedless cannabis flowers are referred to as sensimilla and are more potent and flavourful than seeded cannabis flower. This is because when the female plant is pollinated, it stops directing energy to producing oils and cannabinoids. Instead, the pollinated plant focuses all its’ energy on producing seeds. Seeded cannabis is undesirable for medicinal and recreational growers yet it is first prize for many hemp and food crop growers, as well as breeders.
If you want to create seeds, you need to grow both female and male plants. You can separate your male plant as it starts to produce pollen. Then collect the pollen and pollinate only one or two branches on your female plant. By doing this you can enjoy the fruits of your labour and produce seeds for the next season. The other option is to simply let a male or two pollinate all the plants over the growing season. Leading to a harvest of hundreds to millions of seeds.
Sexing Cannabis Seeds
The best way to identify your plants gender is to wait until it is sexually mature and inspect the nodes or growth points. Plants show sexual maturity by displaying alternate branching and “pre-flowers”. These traits begin in the early flowering stages or late vegetative stages. Pre-flowers are reproductive organs that begin developing before the plant fully enters the reproductive stage and can be used as early identifiers. Male plants produce pollen sacs which look like round balls hanging off the plant.
Female plants produce bracts and white hair like pistils. Pollen sacs are rounder in structure where bracts appear more angular with a thin white pistil growing from within. It is wise to wait until you are entirely sure of your plants’ sex before deciding what to do with it. Not all plants produce the same looking organs and early identification can be tricky for some cultivars. Paying careful attention at all stages of growth will ensure that you are able to far better control the quality and results of your grow.
Cannabis sex isn’t that simple
As if cannabis isn’t woke enough, it can also occasionally be gender fluid. In cases of poor genetics, stressful environment or purposeful reversal, the cannabis plant can display both sexes at once. This is called an intersex trait or “hermie”. Hermies are traditionally undesirable as they may seed crops that are intended to be seedless. Thereby greatly reducing the value of the crop.
However, in recent times breeders have perfected the art of using these traits to their advantage. Femisied cannabis seeds are created by forcefully introducing intersex traits in a female plant. Then using its pollen to pollinate other stable clones of the same female plants. This means that the seeds made from the cross will be identical to the mother plant and almost always female. These are known as feminized seeds. Nowadays most breeders will use chemicals to induce this change in the plant, however almost any stress of the right intensity can induce intersex traits across the spectrum.
It’s easier than ever
Always ask first. If you are unsure about sexing cannabis seeds, there are many online resources you can draw from. Facebook groups make a great place to share and learn from others. Similarly online forums are an excellent resource to browse and interact with other growers without compromising your anonymity. But be warned, there are as many unhelpful opinions as there are helpful. As not all comments are from experienced growers. Try and find a community of people whom you feel comfortable with and have a healthy track record.
You should always source your genetics from reliable and trustworthy providers. There are few things more frustrating than finding an unwanted hermie a few weeks from harvest. In South Africa it is now very easy to access high end and reliable genetics. Whether you want to start from seed or clone, there are multiple vendors supplying feminised seeds and clones. For the aspiring breeders, some vendors even supply regular seeds and male pollen that you can apply at your convenience.
Get the right grow gear
There’s an old proverb about not building your house on the sand and how you should plan for success. Growing A+ cannabis requires a dedication and flexible budget for the happiest results. Don’t be afraid to invest a little bit in the correct grow medium and nutrients, it will make all the difference.
We hope that we have taken some of the mystery out of sexing cannabis seeds. Honestly though, it will be surprisingly easy to get the hang of sexing cannabis seeds in no time at all. You will spot the signs and differences quickly with a well-trained eye and should be well on your way to beautiful big buds. If you still need a little help spotting the boys from the girls? Please contact our grow pros for some top shelf advice.