Induction of Polyploidy and Its Effect on Cannabis sativa L.
- Hakimeh Mansouri
- Mahsa Bagheri
Polyploids are organisms with three or more complete chromosome sets. Polyploidization is widespread in plants, and is an important mechanism of speciation. Polyploids can be formed in various ways. The study of polyploids has both important theoretical significance and valuable applications. The production and application of polyploidy breeding have brought remarkable economic and social benefits. We reported the production of putative tetraploid plants of Cannabis sativa L., with the ultimate aim of improving the medicinal and physiological traits of this widely distributed cultivated plant. The production of tetraploid plant was improved with colchicine at different concentrations and time through dropping method. Flow cytometry analysis was used to confirm the ploidy level. Morphologic, anatomic and biochemical characteristics were compared between tetraploid and diploid control plants. The results showed that 0.2% colchicine for 24 h was the most efficient for production of polyploid plants. The percentage of tetraploid plants and the survival rate were lowered by the increasing the treatment time. In addition, the leaf index and height of tetraploid plants exhibited a significant decrease compared to the diploid plants. The size of stomata on epidermis of leaves were larger in tetraploid plant compared to the diploid ones, in spite of the tetraploid plants have less stomata density. However, the amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoids were almost the same in both tetraploid and diploid plants. In addition, some differences were also observed in the cross section of stem of these plants from a descriptive structural point of view. Overall, the results introduced usage of the stomata parameters as an effective, fast and convenient method for detecting the tetraploid plants. We also investigated polyploidy effects on some primary and secondary metabolites. The results of biochemical analyzes showed that soluble sugars and total protein content increased significantly into mixoploid plants compared to tetraploid and diploid plants. Tetraploid plants had higher amount of total proteins compared with control plants. The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabionol only in mixoploid plants but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids. Our results suggest that tetraploidization was not useful for production of tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use but mixoploids were found suitable.
Polyploids are organisms with three or more complete chromosome sets. Polyploidization is widespread in plants, and is an important mechanism of speciation. Polyploids can be formed in various ways….
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Origins of Pink Kush, OG Kush, Chemdawg:
During my research of polyploid cannabis. I have come up with what I believe to be the initial source of this super weed. It was said, but not confirmed, that UBC Professor David Suzuki, doing genetic research (1977), created a polyploid plant (tetraploid) by treating it with colchicine based upon the work of Menzel/Brown and Warmke. This plant was originally a hybrid of Thai (sativa) x Purple Afghani (indica) and was then treated with Colchicine (Autumn Locus bulb). There are certainly other clones that were created by other breeders, especially in Hawaii, but the initial commercial tetraploid was developed in B.C. by the Canadian Government and UBC for Cancer patients. I would estimate that the THC content of polyploids to be well over 30% and maybe up to 40% if grown correctly. Fully grown mother tetraploid plants have been known to sell for $10,000. Clones have been known to sell for $1,000 in the past compared to the standard $5-7 range for diploid clones. Tetraploids are extremely difficult to clone (10-20%) unless special care is taken. The end product is far superior to anything commercially available and even compared to excellent connoisseur diploid product due to the doubling of THC. See my Secrets of the Pink Kush book for updated information on this and more topics.
The resulting F1 hybrid seeds were then grown out and used for cancer patients at UBC. Allegedly somebody stole one of the clones that the Canadian Government and David Suzuki, supposedly, had created. It became famous and was then re-created by treating other plants and sold out east as Diesel and as OG Kush on the west coast and as ChemDawg in Colorado. These were all colchicine treated plants based upon their work and the popularity of UBC Chemo. Please note that, according to Sam the Skunkman AKA David Watson, David Suzuki denies that he created this plant. Please note that David Suzuki has always been a government employee and as such his veracity cannot be completely trusted in this world of ours. He would deny it simply because he would lose his job. I do not face that fear.
My understanding is that some clones were stolen. This would make more sense. Diploid and Tetraploid crosses produce Triploids that are infertile due to chromosome mismatch. These are known as “Terminator Seeds” (e.g. Diablos Pink Kush) as customers must buy seeds for each crop due to infertility. The resulting generations of seeds will be diploid. Triploids can be treated again, with Colchicine, to create a Hexaploid. This can be then crossed with a tetraploid or diploid to produce tetraploid plants again. I believe that Warmke was wrong about triploids and Sam the Skunkman thinks that they are not sterile.
How To Identify Polyploids:
You can identify a polyploid be mere physical appearance and no need to examine the chromosones. Most people have never grown or smoked these real legendary plants. The gangters rap about OG Kush because they had the money to buy this extremely rare connoisseur product. Most product out there is just “wangsta OG”.
- Four sets of leaves at the nodes
- Stretched (doubled) flowers
- Dark green leaves
- Double bud sites
- Heavy feeder
- High water consumption
- Thick meristem
- Pistil discoloration (pink pistils under black light)
- Extreme potency
- Crooked looking plant providing a Bonsai appearance
- Larger stomata
- Thicker leaves
- NOTE: In order to correctly determine a polyploid level you must extract DNA from the root stain the sample (several methods), put under microscope, count the gametes surrounding the nuclei. You must draw what you see in the microscope and then count. As cannabis has 10 gametes, the number should be 20 for 2n (normal diploid), 40 for 4n (tetraploid), 30 for 3n (triploid), and 60 (hexaploid) for 6n and 80 for 8n (octoploid).
- Secrets of the Pink Kush – Advanced Knowledge of Polyploids in plants, insects, animals and humans.
If your plant (OG Kush or Chemo or Pink Kush or Chem Dawg or Master Kush) does not have four sets of leaves at the nodes then it is NOT a true polyploid plant and it not the real deal. UBC Chemo is a polyploid and had four leaf internodes. These tetraploid cuttings have different names but are believed to all be the famous polyploids named OG Kush, Pink Kush, Chemdawg, Diesel, Master Kush etc. These are really heavy feeders due to the double size buds and double the number of leaves and buds and THC glands. This plant is very strange and has a chemical smell to it. UBC Chemo, for example, has a Haze and Kush taste due to the Thai sativa and Afghani indica influences. Polyploid plants are almost twice as strong as diploid plants due to the doubling of THC molecules. These plants are extremely difficult to clone and grow very slowly due to the doubling of leaves unless fed correctly. Water consumption is extremely high. If it only has two leaves then it is a normal diploid and will not have the same effect as the three molecule THC of a polyploid. Three leaves does not necessarily mean it is polyploid as it could be just whorled phyllotaxis (just created by stress, removing leaves and the subsequent regeneration of leaves is deformed). Four leaves does mean polyploid. Triploids, being sterile, must be treated to create hexaploids. These hexaploids can then be used to create seeds that will be polyploids.
WARNING: Colchicine is a extremely toxic alkaloid and is highly poisonous. Long term contact can result in white blood cell anomolies. You cannot smoke a plant that has been treated, post germination, with Colchicine. You can only consume the grown out product of the seeds. You can smoke product that was treated prior to germination. Selective breeding is not genetically modified cannabis. This is genetically modified pot as it was altered at the chromosonal level. Never treat a plant with Colchicine as it will become toxic and will eventually revert to diploid with further treatment. You are changing the molecular structure dynamically and none of the product can be consumed. The correct way is to treat the seeds.
G-13 The story on this is that it was created by the University of Mississippi under the aegis of the infamous Carlton Turner. Apparently this cannot be true as U of M never did genetic engineering. If you Google G-13 you will find it is made by Suzuki. Well David Suzuki did create a GM Genetically Modified plant – Chemo. What letter is the 13th letter of the alphabet? M. So we have G-13 or GM for genetically modified and made by Suzuki. Sounds like an great code name to me. I strongly suspect that G-13 is just the Chemo clone and yet another name for it. UPDATE May 11, 2014: David Suzuki denies ever having made that plant and an old friend of mine believes that the Chemo actually came from the University of Washington.
I was offered a cutting of the Chemo plant in Ontario back in the mid 1980’s. I had been transferred from B.C. when the recession hit. Several other people from B.C. went to Ontario as well in search of work. We brought out seeds, clones and technology with us. There was a guy who ran a Hydroponics store in Toronto that had the Chemo clone for sale. I cannot remember the price but it was FAR too much money. I did not comprehend the value of this plant at that time and thought he was crazy. Now, after having seen it, I understand.
- UBC Chemo
- OG Kush
- Master Kush
- Pink Kush
- Acapulco Gold (suspected polyploid, long gone)
Tetraploid marijuana plants have a real dank smell. It is really obvious when you know what you are looking for. I do not recommend growing these plants out as they take far too long to vegetate and require more attention, food and water than normal diploid plants. They could be used in a Sea of Green method but you are really relying on the genetics and not on proper plant development of hormones for optimal THC production. The resulting product is not nearly as good as a full grown plant but it is not bad for the Sea of Green method which normally produces mediocre marijuana at best. If you want to try some triploid Diablos Pink Kush seeds then check out the Seeds
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