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Genetic Structure of First Nation Communities in the Pacific Northwest

Affiliations

  • 1 1 Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
  • 2 2 Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
  • 3 3 Program in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
  • 4 4 Metlakatla Treaty Office, Metlakatla, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 5 5 Stswecem’c Xgat’tem First Nation, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 6 6 Splatsin First Nation, Enderby, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 7 7 UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California, USA.
  • 8 8 Departement de Pediatrie, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  • 9 9 Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
  • 10 10 Canadian Museum of History, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada.
  • PMID: 28826319
  • DOI: 10.13110/humanbiology.88.4.0251

Genetic Structure of First Nation Communities in the Pacific Northwest

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Authors

Affiliations

  • 1 1 Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
  • 2 2 Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
  • 3 3 Program in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
  • 4 4 Metlakatla Treaty Office, Metlakatla, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 5 5 Stswecem’c Xgat’tem First Nation, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 6 6 Splatsin First Nation, Enderby, British Columbia, Canada.
  • 7 7 UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California, USA.
  • 8 8 Departement de Pediatrie, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  • 9 9 Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
  • 10 10 Canadian Museum of History, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada.
  • PMID: 28826319
  • DOI: 10.13110/humanbiology.88.4.0251

Abstract

This study presents genetic data for nine Native American populations from northern North America. Analyses of genetic variation focus on the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal, and autosomal DNA variants, we aimed to more closely address the relationships of geography and language with present genetic diversity among the regional PNW Native American populations. Patterns of genetic diversity exhibited by the three genetic systems were consistent with our hypotheses: genetic variation was more strongly explained by geographic proximity than by linguistic structure. Our findings were corroborated through a variety on analytic approaches, with the unrooted trees for the three genetic systems consistently separating inland from coastal PNW populations. Furthermore, analyses of molecular variance support the trends exhibited by the unrooted trees, with geographic partitioning of PNW populations (FCT = 19.43%, p = 0.010 ± 0.009) accounting for over twice as much of the observed genetic variation as linguistic partitioning of the same populations (FCT = 9.15%, p = 0.193 ± 0.013). These findings demonstrate a consensus with previous PNW population studies examining the relationships of genome-wide variation, mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies, and skeletal morphology with geography and language.

Keywords: d9s1120; first nations; migration; mitochondrial dna; y chromosome.

This study presents genetic data for nine Native American populations from northern North America. Analyses of genetic variation focus on the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal, and autosomal DNA variants, we aimed to more closely address the relationships of geography and l …

Genetics and Evolution in the Pacific Northwest

Science to support the conservation and management of marine and anadromous species on the U.S. West Coast.

Our science supports the conservation and management of marine and anadromous species, from deep-sea corals, to salmon, to whales. We employ advanced genetics and genomics tools to provide essential information for managing sustainable fisheries and conserving protected species. We do this by characterizing genetic diversity in marine and anadromous organisms, evaluating the relationship between diversity and population viability, and evaluating how human-induced or environmental factors influence diversity.

Our primary research themes and activities include:

  • Using advanced genetic and genomic techniques, we assess genetic variation in aquatic animals, identify the composition of mixed fishery stocks, estimate fitness in the wild, and evaluate effects of hatchery domestication, fishing, and climate change.
  • Evaluating biological diversity in marine communities and diets of endangered Southern Resident killer whales using DNA metabarcoding.
  • Using environmental DNA (eDNA) to monitor diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine species in open ocean and nearshore communities.
  • Undertaking fisheries forensics casework in support of the NMFS Office of Law Enforcement.
  • Evaluating the biological impacts of ocean acidification on marine species and communities. These studies use state-of-the-art experimental facilities for growing animals in conditions that mimic pre-industrial, current, and future ocean carbon dioxide levels to observe changes in animal growth, survival, behavior, and adaptation potential.

Teams

Ecological Genetics and Diversity

We support ongoing conservation and management activities, including participation in protected species status reviews, listings, and recovery planning.

Molecular Genetics

We develop and use integrative genetic and genomic approaches to understand genetic diversity of marine and anadromous species. Our team includes forensic scientists using molecular tools for forensic casework involved in protecting species.

Ocean Acidification

We research the biological response to ocean acidification (including simultaneous changes in temperature and oxygenation). Our research informs modeling the future.

Science to support the conservation and management of marine and anadromous species on the U.S. West Coast.