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GC/MS analysis of morning glory seeds freely in commerce: can they be considered “herbal highs”?

Abstract

Background

The so-called “herbal highs” are substances derived from natural plants with effects on the central nervous system. Lisergamide, ergine or LSA is the basis of different types of drugs, which are in seeds of Ipomoea violacea, also known as Morning Glory, and other seeds.

In our study we analysed the presence of lysergic acid amide (LSA) in seeds of Ipomoea violacea seized by the Italian Police, in others purchased through the Internet, and in other varieties of Ipomoea sold for ornamental purposes, to assess whether the actual consumption of ornamental seeds could contain hallucinogenic doses of LSA.

Methods

The analyses were conducted at the Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology of the Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Perugia, using GC/MSD system. For analysis, 300 mg of seeds (

8 seeds) from each specimen were chosen.

Results

Analysis revealed that 300 mg of Ipomoea violacea seeds resulting from police seizures, equivalent to approximately 8 seeds, contained a percentage of LSA equal to 0.062%. This finding is in agreement with what was indicated in literature, as the ingestion of 250 seeds would lead to a dose of approximately 6 mg of LSA, capable of provoking hallucinogenic effects.

The analysis of 300 mg of Ipomoea Rubrocerulea seeds bought on the commercial marketdetected an average concentration of LSA of 0.011%. The Ipomoea mix contained a concentration of LSA about 10 times lower than that of seized Morning Glory seeds.

Conclusion

Seeds bought on the commercial market contained doses of LSA capable of provoking hallucinogenic effects. In the absence of data on the toxicity resulting from the ingestion of seeds for ornamental purposes, we believe that further research on the actual safety of ornamental seeds is necessary.

Background

In recent years, interest in non-conventional drugs has increased. The so-called “herbal highs” are substances derived from natural plants with effects on the central nervous system (Halpern, 2004; Bilgrey, 2016; Zuba et al., 2011).

These drugs are called “legal highs”, underlining the fact that they have easy accessibility, low cost, and are not illegal (Aoun et al., 2014).

Lisergamide (Juszczak & Swiergiel, 2013), ergine or LSA is the basis natural drugs, which are contained in brown seeds of Rivea Corymbosa, of Ipomoea violacea also known as Morning Glory and of Argyreya Nervosa known as Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. These plants are members of Convulacee family and are infected by a kind of clavicipitaceus fungus that is responsible for the biosynthesis of alkaloids. The most important alkaloids are ergine and isoergine, which is ergine enatiomer. In these seeds, other bases especially chanoclavine, elymoclavina, and lysergol can also be found.

Studies on seeds of Morning Glory began in 1955 when a psychiatrist published notes on self-experimentation with Rivea seeds, showing that they provoked hallucinations. This announcement prompted chemists to analyse this plant, but until 1960 they failed to identify the active substance. At that time the chemist Hoffmann Albert (Hofmann, 1963), who discovered LSD, analysed the plant and found several alkaloids closely related to that powerful synthetic hallucinogen.

The discovery of ergot alkaloids in seeds of Rivea Corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea and Argyreia nervosa in the early 60s was rather unexpected and of particular interest from a phytochemical point of view, since the lysergic acid alkaloids, until then, were isolated only in the genus Claviceps fungus, Penicillium or Rhizopus (Steiner et al., 2006).

The ingestion of Ipomoea violacea seeds produces effects comparable to those produced by Argyreia nervosa seeds. These effects, although minor, are similar to those of LSD.

In general, seeds are ingested whole or broken and immersed in water. Data in literature suggest that in order to have the hallucinogenic effects, 10 seeds Argyreia nervosa (Al-Assmar, 1999), and from 150 to 200 seeds of Morning Glory are typically ingested (Schultes, 1960).

Ergine hallucinogenic activity (LSA) is carried out starting from the assumption of 2–5 mg (Schultes & Hofmann, 1980). LSA effects, lasting about 4–8 h, are associated with feelings of tranquility, dysphoria, psychedelic visual effects, color visions. In humans, the lethal dose is 14 mg / kg.

In addition to desired effects, LSA has several side effects (Juszczak & Swiergiel, 2013). In a recent review, different symptoms following the ingestion of these seeds were reported: the most troubling of them was suicidal ideation. In literature, anorexia, nausea, memory loss, dissociative reactions and schizophrenic relapse are the major psychotic adverse effects that may occur as a result of ingestion of the seeds. Furthermore, in the past fatal cases occurred after taking seeds containing LSA have been described (Gertsch & Wood, 2003; Cohen, 1964; Brady, 1968; Ingram, 1964; Flach, 1967; Whelan et al., 1968). The ingestion of seeds was frequently associated with taking drugs such as cannabis and hashish (Hofmann, 1963). Interactions due to ingestion of Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea violacea or Rivea Corymbosa and other drugs are still unknown. However it has been shown that the metabolism of LSD analogous is inhibited by drugs used in HIV therapy. This suggests the possibility that patients, treated with antiretroviral drugs, taking LSD or Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea violacea or Rivea Corymbosa, may manifest an increase in the toxicity induced by such hallucinogens (Klinke et al., 2010).

In our study we tried to analyse the presence of lysergic acid amide in seeds of Ipomoea violacea seized by Italian Police, in others purchased through the Internet, and in other varieties of Ipomoea sold for ornamental purposes, to assess whether the actual intake of ornamental seeds could contain hallucinogenic doses of LSA. In addition we also evaluated and described the most suitable methods for the extraction and the quantitative determination of LSA (Mussof & Daldrup, 1997).

Methods

The analyses were conducted at the Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology of the Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Perugia during May 2015. The reference standards used were purchased from the company Sigma – Aldrich and / or LGC Standards s.r.l.

Morning glory seeds (Fig. 1) used in the research were seized by the police during an operation for the prevention and suppression of illicit traffic of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, and delivered to the Forensic Toxicology Laboratory of the University of Perugia Section for the identification and qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Seized Seeds – Morning Glory

Seeds of Heavenly Blue (Ipomoea Rubrocerulea) were bought on the internet from a site of ornamental plants; seeds of a mix of varieties of Ipomoea, purple and others were instead purchased directly in a shop for ornamental plants.

The chemical-toxicological analysis have been performed using GC / MSD system 6850/5973 Network, Agilent Technologies company, ion source connected to capillary HP5ms, 25 mm ID, column length 30 m.

For analyses, 300 mg of seeds (

8 seeds) from each specimen were chosen. Each sample was washed with 3 ml of distilled water and 2 ml of dichloromethane, and then crushed in a mortar with quartz.

All the finely crushed material was collected in graduated glass tubes. Distilled water and a few drops of 1 N NaOH were added to obtain sharply basic pH. Then the aqueous solution was extracted three times with a chloroform-methanol-NH4OH solution in 9: 90: 1 aspect ratio. The extracts were dried under a stream of nitrogen at a temperature below 40 °C. Finally 100 μl of methanol RPE was added (Witters, 1975).

The LSA dilutions to obtain the calibration curve were prepared from a stock solution in methanol (1 mg / ml). The solution was diluted with methanol to obtain four concentrations of LSA included in a range between 10 and 100 μg / ml (Fig. 2) (Littlewood, 1970; Crawford, 1970).

The sample was introduced using splitless injection; programmed temperature for all analytes started at 150 °C for 2 mins, then, with a thermal gradient of 30 °C per min reached a temperature of 290 °C remaining constant for other 25 mins. Helium was used as carrier gas, setting a flow rate of 1 ml / min and the injector temperature was set at 280 °C. The analytes, eluted from the chromatographic column, arrived via transfer line, whose temperature was set at 300 °C, in the ionization source of the mass spectrometer, characterized by a temperature of 300 °C. Here they were ionized through the ‘application of a potential of 70 eV and an emission of current of 200 uA. The characterization of all analytes was carried out in full-scan mode (range m / z 50–800).

For quantitative analysis of LSA, MS-SIM acquisition mode was chosen; mass spectra were obtained by selecting at least three characteristic ions.

LSA wasidentified through its molecular ion m/z 267 and ion fragments 221 and 207. Analyses were repeated three times.

Method validation

The method linearity for each compound was investigated in the range 10–100 mcg/ml. Calibration curves were established with three replicates at each concentration.

Sensitivity was evaluated by determination of the LOD and the limit of quantitation (LOQ). A series of decreasing concentrations of drug-fortified solutions was analysed to determine LOD and LOQ. The LOD was determined as the concentration with a signal/noise (S/N) ratio of at least 3, while the LOQ was the lowest concentration with a S/N ratio of at least 10. The acceptable value for the regression coefficient (R2) was set at > .98. R2, LOD and LOQ values were respectively of 0.99671, 5 ng/ml, 10 ng/ml.

Results and discussion

All the used extractive methods revealed the presence of LSA in seeds of Ipomoea violacea, but the system with ammonium hydroxide, methanol and chloroform, provided excellent results in terms of yield compared to other systems adopted in preliminary screening tests. During fragmentation, the ion fragment m/z 267 had a value that was double, in terms of abundance ions, so it was used to quantify LSA. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of LSA in Ipomoea violacea seeds (Morning Glory), Ipomoea Rubrocerulea and Ipomoea mix (Figs. 3, 4 and 5).

The so-called “herbal highs” are substances derived from natural plants with effects on the central nervous system. Lisergamide, ergine or LSA is the basis of different types of drugs, which are in seeds of Ipomoea violacea, also known as Morning Glory, and other seeds. In our study we analysed the presence of lysergic acid amide (LSA) in seeds of Ipomoea violacea seized by the Italian Police, in others purchased through the Internet, and in other varieties of Ipomoea sold for ornamental purposes, to assess whether the actual consumption of ornamental seeds could contain hallucinogenic doses of LSA. The analyses were conducted at the Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology of the Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Perugia, using GC/MSD system. For analysis, 300 mg of seeds (~8 seeds) from each specimen were chosen. Analysis revealed that 300 mg of Ipomoea violacea seeds resulting from police seizures, equivalent to approximately 8 seeds, contained a percentage of LSA equal to 0.062%. This finding is in agreement with what was indicated in literature, as the ingestion of 250 seeds would lead to a dose of approximately 6 mg of LSA, capable of provoking hallucinogenic effects. The analysis of 300 mg of Ipomoea Rubrocerulea seeds bought on the commercial marketdetected an average concentration of LSA of 0.011%. The Ipomoea mix contained a concentration of LSA about 10 times lower than that of seized Morning Glory seeds. Seeds bought on the commercial market contained doses of LSA capable of provoking hallucinogenic effects. In the absence of data on the toxicity resulting from the ingestion of seeds for ornamental purposes, we believe that further research on the actual safety of ornamental seeds is necessary.

Morning glory seeds dose

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

DISCLAIMER: PW’s dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Lysergic acid amide (also known as ergine, d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, and LSA) is a naturally-occurring psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class. LSA is an ergot alkaloid and the main psychoactive constituent of morning glory seeds. [ citation needed ] LSA is chemically related to LSD and is said to produce similar effects, although the extent to which it does is unclear.

LSA was first described in 1932 as part of an investigation into the alkaloids found in ergot. [1] In 1947, it was synthesized and tested for human activity by Albert Hofmann. The intramuscular administration of a 500 microgram dose produced a “tired, dreamy state with an inability to maintain clear thoughts.” [2] In 1970, LSA was detected as a constituent in Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds, which were being ground up into capsules and sold on the street as “mescaline”. [3] Today, LSA is typically consumed via morning glory and Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds. [4]

User reports describe the effects of LSA as primarily sedating and dream-like, with a mild to moderate psychedelic component. The psychedelic effects of LSA occur inconsistently and are not directly comparable to the effects of classical psychedelics like LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, or mescaline. LSA is described as primarily bodily and cognitive with little visual effects. Many users report serious nausea and bodily discomfort (“body load”) when taking LSA-containing seeds.

Like other psychedelics, LSA is not considered to be addictive. [5] However, adverse reactions such as severe anxiety, paranoia, and psychosis are always possible, particularly among those who are predisposed to psychiatric disorders. [6] It is therefore highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Contents

  • 1 Chemistry
  • 2 Pharmacology
  • 3 Subjective effects
    • 3.1 Physical effects
    • 3.2 Visual effects
      • 3.2.1 Enhancements
      • 3.2.2 Distortions
      • 3.2.3 Geometry
      • 3.2.4 Hallucinatory states
    • 3.3 Cognitive effects
    • 3.4 Auditory effects
    • 3.5 Transpersonal effects
    • 3.6 Combination effects
    • 3.7 Experience reports
  • 4 Natural plant sources
    • 4.1 Morning glory seeds (MGS)
    • 4.2 Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds (HBWR)
    • 4.3 Preparation methods
  • 5 Toxicity and harm potential
    • 5.1 Vasoconstriction
    • 5.2 Dependence and abuse potential
    • 5.3 Dangerous interactions
    • 5.4 Other interactions
  • 6 Legal status
  • 7 See also
  • 8 External links
    • 8.1 Discussion
  • 9 References

Chemistry

LSA, or d-lysergic acid amide, is an organic alkaloid belonging to the lysergamide class. The chemical structure of LSA contains a core structure of lysergic acid with an amine functional group bound to RN. The structure of lysergic acid is composed of a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group (lysergic acid). At carbon 8 of the quinoline, an acetamide group is bound. LSA is additionally substituted at carbon 6 with a methyl group.

LSA is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at R5 and R8. LSA, also called (+)-D-LSA, has an absolute configuration of (5R, 8R). The three other stereoisomers of LSA do not have psychoactive properties. LSA is structurally analogous to LSD, with the exception being that LSA lacks the diethyl substitution of LSD at RN of its carboxamide group. It can be used as a precursor to LSD.

Pharmacology

LSA’s psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience remains the subject of scientific investigation.

The notion that LSA is the primary psychedelic constituent in morning glory and Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds has been challenged as the effects of isolated synthetic LSA are reported to be only slightly psychedelic in nature. Therefore, it has been proposed that the overall experience may possibly be produced by a mixture of various lysergamide alkaloids (including iso-LSA and LSH) within these plant materials instead of a single psychoactive compound.

Subjective effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses are more likely to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects

    • Sedation – LSA is predominantly sedating; however, this can be setting dependent. For example, when taken in settings with large amounts of stimuli or during physically strenuous activities such as walking, running, climbing or dancing, LSA is capable of becoming stimulating and energetic. In contrast, when taken in calm environments such as darkened rooms with comfortable seating, it tends to be relaxing, sedating.
    • Spontaneous bodily sensations – The “body high” of LSA can be described as a mild yet pleasurable and soft tingling sensation. This is largely noticed in high doses and is accompanied by strong waves of physical euphoria which are usually manifested spontaneously at different unpredictable points throughout the trip but can also maintain a consistent presence. Compared to LSD, the physical effects of LSA tend to predominate the experience relative to its visual and cognitive effects.
      • Perception of bodily heaviness
      • Physical euphoria – This effect is reported to be more readily able to be produced by LSA than LSD. However, it can be masked by strong, uncomfortable feelings of nausea and vasoconstriction, particularly when LSA-containing seeds are consumed directly before any extraction has been performed.
    • Motor control loss – This effect becomes far more present at high doses than lower doses. It can be compared to the loss of motor control experienced with alcohol-induced inebriation and is strengthened by the perception of bodily heaviness.
    • Temperature regulation suppression [citation needed]
    • Nausea – The nauseating effects of LSA is thought to be mostly caused by the other components of the seeds (e.g. morning glory, Hawaiian baby woodrose, etc.) and not LSA itself. Various extraction methods can be used to significantly reduce if not eliminate the nausea that can be produced by this substance. Anecdotal reports also suggest that ginger tea or cannabis may be helpful in counteracting nausea.
    • Vasoconstriction [citation needed] – LSA is commonly reported to produce strong and pronounced feelings of vasoconstriction. This varies in its intensity between individuals but is often considered moderately to extremely uncomfortable in comparison to other psychedelics. This effect is commonly reported to cause joint and limb pains.
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased blood pressure or Decreased blood pressure [citation needed] – LSA has been reported as being capable of producing both an increase and a decrease in blood pressure, sometimes alternating at different points in the experience, such as during the come up or offset, although it is unclear how much of this is dependent on the seeds and variations in alkaloid contents.
    • Muscle contractions & Muscle relaxation
    • Muscle spasms
    • Dehydration
    • Dizziness
    • Headaches [citation needed]
    • Appetite suppression
    • Gustatory enhancement
    • Orgasm suppression
    • Excessive yawning
    • Pupil dilation
    • Photophobia
    • Increased perspiration
    • Difficulty urinating

Visual effects

  • The visual effects of LSA are mostly present when large doses have been consumed. When compared to LSD and psilocin, the visual effects of LSA are proportionally mild in comparison to the intensity of its accompanying cognitive and physical effects.
Enhancements
  • Colour enhancement
  • Pattern recognition enhancement
  • Visual acuity enhancement
  • Frame rate enhancement
Distortions

The visual distortions and alterations are significantly more simplistic than open eye distortions found with other psychedelics. The effects experienced are detailed below:

  • Depth perception distortions
  • Drifting(melting, breathing, morphing and flowing) – In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as mild but highly detailed and cartoon-like in appearance. The distortions are fast yet smooth in motion and fleeting in permanence. This is an inconsistently manifested effect with some people never reporting such effects.
  • Colour shifting
  • Tracers
  • Scenery slicing
  • Symmetrical texture repetition
Geometry

The visual geometry produced by LSA can be described as more similar in appearance to that of 4-AcO-DMT and ayahuasca than LSD or 2C-B. It can be described through its variations as primarily intricate in complexity, abstract in form, organic in appearance, unstructured in organization, dimly lit, multicolored in scheme, glossy in shading, soft in edges, small in size, slow in speed, smooth in motion, rounded in corners, non-immersive in depth and consistent in intensity. At higher doses, it is significantly more likely to produce 8B geometry over 8A geometry.

Hallucinatory states

LSA is capable of consistently producing a full range of high-level hallucinatory states when it is taken in large doses. However, the doses required to achieve these states are likely to produce very uncomfortable, and potentially dangerous, side effects. These states include:

  • Transformations – These are extremely common within LSA and partially follow the content of the user’s current thought process.
  • Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) – Unlike LSD, LSA consistently produces moderate to high level hallucinatory states in high doses. This particular effect can be compared to a lucid dream state. The hallucinations are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensively described through their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, controllable and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
  • External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) – This effect occurs far more rarely and infrequently than with other hallucinogens. However, they can occasionally occur at heavier dosages. They can be described through their variations as lucid in believability, autonomous in controllability, and solid in style.
  • Peripheral information misinterpretation

Cognitive effects

  • The cognitive effects of LSA are described by many as extremely relaxing yet lucid and clear-headed in style when compared to other commonly used psychedelics such as LSD or psilocin. Although it is primarily sedating, it can produce fast-paced bursts of thought and stimulation at random intervals. LSA produces a large number of psychedelic cognitive effects. The most prominent of these typical effects include:
    • Analysis enhancement – This effect is introspection dominant.
    • Anxiety or Anxiety suppression
    • Conceptual thinking
    • Cognitive euphoria
    • Déjà vu
    • Delusion
    • Emotion enhancement
    • Empathy, affection and sociability enhancement
    • Increased music appreciation – Listening to music can strongly intensify the overall experience.
    • Immersion enhancement
    • Language suppression – Mild compared to language suppression on classical psychedelics like LSD.
    • Increased sense of humor
      • Laughter fits
    • Memory suppression
      • Ego death
    • Mindfulness
    • Novelty enhancement
    • Rejuvenation
    • Autonomous voice communication
    • Thought acceleration
    • Thought connectivity
    • Thought loops
    • Time distortion
    • Wakefulness

Auditory effects

    • Auditory enhancement
    • Auditory distortion
    • Auditory hallucinations

Transpersonal effects

    • Spirituality enhancement
    • Existential self-realization – This effect is less common and reproducible than it is with classical psychedelics like LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, and mescaline.
    • Unity and interconnectedness

Combination effects

  • Cannabis – Cannabis can immensely intensify the sensory and cognitive effects of LSA. Extreme caution is advised when mixing these substances as it can significantly increase the chances of a negative psychological reaction like anxiety, confusion and psychosis. Those who use this combination are advised to start off with only a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits in order to avoid a negative reaction.
  • Dissociatives – Dissociatives greatly enhance the cognitive, visuals and general hallucinatory effects of LSA. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids while under the influence of LSA have significantly more vivid visuals than dissociatives alone, as well as more intense internal hallucinations and correspondingly increased risk of confusion, delusions and psychosis.
  • Alcohol – Alcohol’s central depressant effects can be used to reduce some of the anxiety and tension produced by LSA. However, alcohol can cause dehydration, nausea and physical fatigue which can significantly worsen the experience. If using alcohol, it is advised to pace oneself and drink just a fraction of the usual amount.
  • Benzodiazepines – Depending on the dose, benzodiazepines can slightly to completely reduce the intensity of the cognitive, physical and visual effects of an LSA trip. They are very efficient at stopping “bad trips” at the cost of amnesia and reduced trip intensity. Caution is advised when acquiring them for this purpose as they are very easy to abuse.
  • Psychedelics – When used in combination with other psychedelics, each substance’s physical, cognitive and visual effects intensify and synergize strongly. The synergy between those substances is unpredictable, and for this reason generally not advised. If choosing to combine psychedelics, it is recommended to start with significantly lower dosages than one would take for either substance individually.

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Natural plant sources

Although LSA is illegal in some countries, various seeds which contain it are readily available in many gardening stores. However, the seeds from commercial sources are often coated in some form of pesticide or methylmercury which can result in extreme nausea and bodily discomfort if ingested. Methods for cleaning or de-coating the seeds are available, but are typically ineffective. Typically, the seeds have a earthy, dirt-like taste that can linger. Seeds that have any other flavor should be spit out so as to avoid hazardous coatings. The seed types listed below can be purchased without pesticide coatings online.

Morning glory seeds (MGS)

The seeds of many species of morning glory are known to contain lysergamide alkaloids such LSA. [7] Typical oral doses of morning glory seeds are as follows:

  • Threshold:20 – 50 seeds / 1.5 g
  • Light:50 – 100 seeds / 1.5 – 3 g
  • Common:100 – 250 seeds / 3 – 6 g
  • Strong:250 – 400 seeds / 6 – 10 g
  • Heavy:400 seeds + / 10 g +

Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds (HBWR)

Hawaiian baby woodrose is a perennial climbing vine that is native to the Indian subcontinent and has since been introduced to numerous areas worldwide including Hawaii, Africa and the Caribbean. Its seeds may be consumed for their various lysergamide alkaloids such as LSA. [8] Typical oral doses for Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds are as follows:

  • Threshold:1 – 3 seeds
  • Light:3 – 5 seeds
  • Common:5 – 7 seeds
  • Strong:7 – 12 seeds
  • Heavy:12 seeds +

Preparation methods

LSA containing seeds can be prepared using a number of methods. Some of these methods are listed in our tutorial index and include:

Toxicity and harm potential

This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational LSA use have not been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying LSA by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Vasoconstriction

LSA should not be used regularly for long periods of time. When used repeatedly over a short period of time, LSA’s vasoconstrictive effects build up while the psychoactive effects get weaker. A common sign of vasoconstriction build up can be described as a feeling of painful or uncomfortable legs. [9] This happens as a result of an insufficient amount of blood getting to the muscles. The upper leg muscles are the largest, most energy consuming muscles in the body and will feel sore if blood flow to them is lowered even slightly.

When HBWR, morning glory seeds or pure LSA seeds are consumed and sore legs are experienced, a break has been reported to be helpful. With LSA it can take up to 3 days of abstinence to get back to vasoconstriction baseline.

Dependence and abuse potential

LSA is considered to be non-addictive with a low abuse potential. There are no literature reports of successful attempts to train animals to self-administer LSA, an animal model predictive of abuse liability, indicating that it does not possess the necessary pharmacology to either initiate or maintain dependence. [ citation needed ] There is virtually no withdrawal syndrome when use is stopped.

Tolerance to the effects of LSA forms almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 7 days for the tolerance to return to baseline (in the absence of further consumption). LSA produces cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the use of LSA all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). Independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • Lithium – Lithium is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
  • Cannabis – Cannabis may have an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of LSA. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
  • Stimulants – Stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine or methylphenidate affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. This combination can increase the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. This interaction may also result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis. [citation needed]
  • Tramadol – Tramadol is well-documented to lower the seizure threshold [10] and psychedelics may act to trigger seizures in susceptible individuals. [citation needed]

Lysergic acid amide (also known as ergine, d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, and LSA) is a naturally-occurring psychedelic substance of the lysergamide class. LSA is an ergot alkaloid and the main psychoactive constituent of morning glory seeds.[citation needed] LSA is chemically related to LSD and is said to produce similar effects, although the extent to which it does is unclear.