The Science-based Facts About CBD Effects on the Skin: Data From the Library of Medicine CBD products have exploded onto the marketplace as a result of the farm bill that legalized hemp agriculture. Both oral and topical products are now being widely sold in states that allow CBD sales. Accompanying the hundreds of pro One Well+Good editor switched their beauty routine to a completely CBD skincare regimen. This is everything that happened to her skin. Pigmentation marks can be very annoying. CBD Oil is a tried and tested skincare product with great potential against pigmentation spots!
What is Actually Known About CBD’s Effects on Skin
CBD products have exploded onto the marketplace as a result of the farm bill that legalized hemp agriculture. Both oral and topical products are now being widely sold in states that allow CBD sales. Accompanying the hundreds of products now on the market are a multitude of therapeutic “claims” that these products can treat a wide variety of medical problems, including pain, arthritis, psoriasis, aging and even cancer. Given all of the claims for benefits of using CBD products, it is important to understand what the real science and clinical evidence is regarding CBD’s effects both orally and topically.
First of all, evidence that cannabinoids occur naturally in the body dates back over 60 years. Since that time, the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) has been studied in depth. The ECS is made up of:
- the endocannabinoids (like CBD) that interact with the receptors of the ECS
- the main receptors for cannabinoids, CB1 and CB2, which are found in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as on skin cells
- various specific enzymes that either synthesize cannabinoids or degrade them. The body actually makes its own cannabinoids and these are called endocannabinoids
However, the cannabinoids that have received all the attention lately are the phytocannabinoids that are derived from plants, like cannabis and hemp.
The Take Home Lesson
For those that don’t wish to read the full report below regarding what is really known about CBD effects on the skin when applied topically, the take-home message is:
- As of April, 2021, there are NO peer-reviewed publications of controlled clinical studies that describe any benefit of CBD to the skin when applied topically. There are three non-controlled “anecdotal” human studies, several mice and rat studies, and many studies of CBD effects on cultured skin cells. So, at present, we simply don’t know if topically applied CBD products provide ANY benefits.
Although there has been a lot of research regarding cannabinoids, the only in depth clinical studies that have been conducted have looked at effects of cannabinoids after either ingesting, inhaling or injecting the cannabinoids. There have been essentially no published controlled clinical studies on the effects of topically applied cannabinoids. This is surprising in light of the numerous claims showing up on the internet about all the wonderful things cannabinoids can do. If one wants to know what “claims” that show up on the internet are true and which are false, the ONLY way to accurately assess truth from fiction is to do your research on the Library of Medicine’s database. Pubmed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), the Library of Medicine’s online searchable database lists every peer-reviewed scientific publication related to a given subject.
A search of the Pubmed database using the search words cannabidiol (CBD) turned up over 3000 publications that have appeared over the years, with most dealing with the oral use of CBD to either treat epilepsy (the only FDA approved CBD medicine is Epidiolex) or to reduce pain. Many other published studies have focused on analyzing CBD content in various cannabis extracts. When the term “cannabidiol” was combined with “skin”, only 62 publications were found. Of these 62, there were only THREE clinical studies on the topical effect of cannabinoids on skin, and these were carried out with very small numbers of patients, which does not provide any statistically significant results. As a result these studies are considered “anecdotal” and not controlled studies. A quick summary of all the results of peer reviewed scientific articles on cannabinoids is listed below.
- Although there have been a few mice and rat studies on topically applied cannabinoids, there have been only three published reports of clinical studies on the topical use of cannabidiol.
- In one study patients with mild to moderate scalp psoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis were given a shampoo containing cannabidiol. After 14 days of use, the level of itching and redness had decreased in the patients.
- In a second very small study of 16 patients, they were asked to evaluate the effect of a topical cannabidiol lotion on their eczema. After 2 weeks of use, the patients “self-reported” an modest improvement in the severity of their eczema.
- In a third small study, patients treated topically with 8% CBD reported having less nerve pain.
- NOTE: in addition to the above studies, a non-clinical study with only 3 individuals suffering from a rare skin blistering disease, epidermolysis bullosa, applied a topical CBD oil to their skin and all 3 reported less blistering.
- A topical preparation of CBD was shown to reduce inflammation and swelling in the foot of a mouse injected with an irritant.
- Rats treated topically with CBD and then exposed to a UVB lamp showed protection of keratinocytes from apoptosis (cell death caused by UV radiation). Whether or not CBD was simply acting as a sunscreen was not determined.
- Mice treated on the ears with a tumor promoter to trigger inflammation showed less ear edema (swelling) in the ear treated with CBD.
- Changes in the proteome profile of UVB treated fibroblasts.
- CBD induces the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in keratinocytes treated with UVR.
- CBD blocks the NF-kB pathway that leads to the activation of inflammatory genes in UVR stimulated keratinocytes.
- CBD reduces keratinocyte proliferation, which may be useful for treating psoriasis but may not be good for normal skin turnover.
- CBD reduces free radical (ROS) levels in keratinocytes.
- CBD is a gene suppressor and can lower keratin levels in keratinocytes
- CBD stimulates melanogenesis (pigmentation) in human melanocytes.
- Hemp extract protects keratinocytes and fibroblasts from hydrogen peroxide toxicitiy by blocking ROS (free radicals) and by inhibiting the inflammatory mediator, PGE-2.
- CBD reduces sebum production in cultured sebocytes, which might be useful for acne.
- CBD increases activity of NRF-2 and this leads to increased antioxidant (superoxide dismutase). CBD also prevented cells damaged by UVB from undergoing apoptosis (cell death). Note: the value of keeping potentially mutated cells alive may not be a good thing.
- CBD may lower ROS levels.
- Flax extract inhibited inflammation but stimulated MMPs in a wound healing model, which may be good for wound healing but bad for maintenance of the dermal matrix.
As you can see, research on CBD is in its infancy and there is almost NO clinical data showing any beneficial effects of topical CBD on human skin. Given the available data, what effect on the skin might we expect to see if we applied CBD topically?
- CBD and keratinocyte growth: The keratinocytes in our skin are dividing all the time at the basal layer of the epidermis and from there they migrate to the skin’s surface to replace those dead, cornified keratinocytes that make up the stratum corneum. The stratum corneum is a critically important protective barrier that protects us against environmental damage by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, UV radiation and water loss. We know that in a young person, the epidermis “turns over” about every 40-45 days (recent studies suggest that the complete turnover of the epidermis takes longer than the 30 day time period that has been used for years). We also know that this “turnover rate” decreases as you get older, due, in large part, to a reduction in the proliferation rate of keratinocytes at the basal layer of the epidermis (age can cause up to a 50% reduction in keratinocyte mitosis). Thus, fewer keratinocytes migrate to the surface and the skin becomes thinner as we age. An article in the Journal of Dermatological Science (Wilkinson and Williamson (2007), J.Dermatol Sci: 45: 87-92) describes the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation/growth by cannabinoids. In addition, a more recent research study has shown that cannabidiol, as well as other cannabinoids, inhibit the expression of genes that code for important keratinocyte proteins (Pucci, M. et al (2013); Br.J. Pharmacol. 170: 581-591). These proteins, including Keratin 1 and 10, and involucrin, are important structural components of the epidermis. Since these proteins are critical for the normal development, strength and barrier properties of the stratum corneum, inhibiting their production and lowering their levels in the skin, weakens the skin’s barrier.
So, although the use of CBD in slowing the proliferation of keratinocytes might be helpful in reducing psoriatic plaques caused by rapidly growing keratinocytes, and might even help treat skin cancer, there is no data at present that its use in normal skin care and “anti-aging” products will provide any benefits. And based on the available data, topical CBD might cause skin thinning and a loss of barrier function.
- CBD Effects on Inflammation: At the present time there is no scientifically published human data on any anti-inflammatory effect of topically applied A few studies with cell cultures have shown that CBD can lower the level of the inflammatory mediator, TNF-alpha, in leukocytes, block IL-6 and IL-8 production in human monocytes and macrophages, lower COX-2 (PGE-2) expression in macrophages, and block inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes (Pellati, F; et al; (2018) Biomed Res. Intl. ID. 1691428). Finally, a recent publication has shown that Flax Fiber (which contains several chemicals, including CBD) might be useful as a wound dressing to accelerate healing. Recently, a derivative of CBD, VCE-004, was found to INHIBIT collagen production in human dermal fibroblasts (Del Rio, C., et al., 2018, Br.J.Pharmacol. 175:3813). For a very recent review on what is known about CBD effects on inflammation see Baswan, S.M et al. (2020) Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology. 13:927-942. So although cell culture studies suggest that CBD may provide anti-inflammatory benefits, at present, there are no clinical studies that demonstrate any anti-aging or anti-inflammatory effects of CBD when applied topically to the skin.
- CBD Stimulates Pigmentation A recent study on human melanocytes grown in culture found that CBD can stimulate melanogenesis in these cells by increasing tyrosinase activity and by activating a number of melanogenic specific genes ( Hwang, YS. Et al (2017) Chem. Biol. Interact. 273: 107-114). Given this finding, while topical CBD might be useful as a “tanning stimulator” it may aggravate an existing hyperpigmentation (age spot) condition.
- CBD Inhibits Sebum Production One of the potentially beneficial uses of a topical CBD product might be for controlling acne breakouts. A recent publication has shown that CBD can reduce sebum production in human sebocytes (Olah, A et al. (2016), Exp. Dermatol. 25:701-707. While retinoic acid also inhibits sebum production, and improves acne, further research might find that CBD provides the same benefit without the redness, and drying seen with the use of topical retinoic acid.
- CBD Reduces Neuropathy Pain. One recent study (Xu, DH. et al. 2019, Curr.Pharm.Biotechnol.) conducted with a small group of patients (29) showed that an 8% topical solution of CBD could reduce pain caused by neuropathy.
- CBD Inhibits Growth of Cancer Cells One of the more promising effects of CBD is its ability to slow the growth rate of cancer cells, including breast cancer. The mechanism of action of CBD likely involves an antagonism of one or both of the endocannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Both of these receptors play a role in tumor progression, with CB2 playing the greater role in stimulating breast cancer growth and tumor aggressiveness. By blocking the activity of these receptors, CBD lower cancer cell prolilferatoin and also causes cancer cell apoptosis (cell death). For an excellent review on CBD and breast cancer, see Kiskova, T. et al. (2019) Intl. J. Molec.Sci. 20: 1673-1694.
In summary, there is considerable peer-reviewed scientifically credible research that shows positive effects of oral CBD on anxiety, stress, and aggressiveness, and on preventing epileptic seizures. In fact, the only FDA approved CBD drug for epilepsy is Epidiolex, a drug that is effective in reducing the frequency of seizures. In addition, there is growing evidence that CBD may be useful in reducing the growth rates of some cancers.
At present there have been only 3 published, very small clinical studies on the effectiveness of topical CBD in treating any skin problem; one on the use of CBD for treating scalp psoriasis/seborrheic dermatitis, one that involved only patient “self- evaluation” on the benefit of topical CBD for eczema, and finally, one small study where patients used a topical CBD lotion to reduce nerve pain. Research on human cells grown in culture suggests that CBD does have some anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, there is currently no published data that topical CBD provides any benefits for normal skin, and no data showing any anti-aging benefits.
I Swapped My Entire Skin-Care Routine for CBD Products, and My Skin Is Better for It
W hen it comes to star skin-care ingredients, you can bet that I’m diligently slathering them on every single day. Retinol? Check. Hyaluronic acid? I’ve got two just in case. CBD skincare, though? Not quite in my regimen yet.
I have no good reason why it’s not: Cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of the marijuana plant, has been infiltrating the wellness world due to its incredible anti-inflammatory prowess. And as skin issues stemming from inflammation rise, the study-backed powerful antidote (and antioxidant, I might add) is ready to take on acne, rosacea, dryness, and free radical damage all in equal measure. So, you could say it can hang with the OG MVPs of the skin-care world.
“CBD has been shown to have a soothing effect on the skin, and has been used in the treatment of acne and rosacea as well as eczema and dryness,” says Shirley Chi, MD, a Los Angeles-based dermatologist. With such a stacked resume, I collected CBD beauty products and made the decision to overhaul my current regimen with options that are decidedly more high-vibe. Here’s what happened to my skin.
Photo: Getty Images/ Tomas Rodriguez
My CBD skin-care life
I procured CBD beauty products in every category, and for the most part succeeded minus a cleanser (I can’t part with my fave). I decided this was enough to deduce the changes in my complexion if I swapped over to all CBD products. So for the couple of weeks during my CBD experiment, I retired my retinol, vitamin C serum, hyaluronic acid, and go-to face masks in lieu of those with the buzzy ingredient.
I opened the new Herbivore Emerald Glow Oil ($48), spiked with cannabis sativa seed oil and smothered it all over my face. It kind of smelled like weed, but absorbed nicely into my skin. Then for posterity’s sake I layered up with the Khus Khus Sen Face Serum ($80), which had less of a scent but definitely added some soothing moisture to my face. For my eyes, I slathered on Gold Q Nighttime Eye Cream ($48). And then I moisturized my entire body with Lord Jones High CBD Body Lotion ($60), and puckered up with a Veritas Farms Whole Hemp Oil Lip Balm ($4).
I repeated this regimen for two straight weeks, and incorporated the Hora Overnight Exfoliating Mask ($62) twice a week as I slept. And let me tell you something: The results have been impressive. Honestly, I didn’t think I’d notice much of a change (and TBH I was worried my skin would regress without my trusty retinol and HA serum), but I’ve been dealing with post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, and it’s now noticeably faded. My skin’s also been calm, even, and bright—no redness in sight. The CBD products have really kept things chill.
“The anti-inflammatory properties of CBD can help decrease itching and puffiness of skin, and even treat soreness of the skin,” says Dr. Chi. It’s true that my eyes have been less puffy in the morning, which just adds to the long list of reasons CBD’s so amazing. And perhaps the best part of all? It’s good for all skin types. Just be mindful of what type of product it is: “If it’s an oil-based CBD product, stay away from it if you’re very oily-skinned,” notes Dr. Chi. Besides that, consider the cannabidiol to be a now permanent staple of my beauty shelf, in some form or another.
For more basic skin-care tips, here’s how hard to scrub your face, according to a derm. And this is why hard vs. soft water for your skin actually matters.
CBD Oil and pigmentation spots
Pigmentation spots can be a real nuisance, particularly facial ones. We know that many people use CBD products to treat a range of skin conditions, ranging from acne and psoriasis to eczema and dry skin. CBD Oil is suited for all skin types as it nourishes and softens the skin while helping prevent wrinkles. But can CBD Oil also help against pigmentation spots? We did the research for you!
What are pigmentation spots?
Hyperpigmentation, as pigmentation spots or pigmentation marks are also known, expresses itself through dark patterns of spots and patches on the skin caused by excessive melanin production. This is a natural pigment that also determines our skin and hair colour. Melanin is produced by cells known as melanocytes located in the outer layer of the skin. Exposure to sunlight causes melanin to darken the skin as protection against harmful UV radiation. Many people experience pigmentation spots as blemishes on the skin, especially when they are highly visible on facial skin.
What causes hyperpigmentation?
Pigmentation marks can be causes by several factors:
- Sunlight and UV radiation: overexposure to sunlight and UV rays can damage your skin. Skin cells respond by excessive melanin production causing hyperpigmentation marks in exposed locations;
- Homones: certain hormones can cause hyperpigmentation. During pregnancy, women sometimes have a condition called melasma involving pigmentation marks. Contraceptives, certain medication, and cosmetics can also trigger hyperpigmentation;
- Inflammation: wounds and skin lesions lesions can trigger inflammation responses that sometimes damage melanocytes. Such skin trauma can cause hyperpigmentation by darkening patches of skin around the damaged areas;
- External pollutants: air pollution and particles released into the atmosphere can penetrate the skin and become trapped in deeper skin layers. This can damage surrounding cells through free radicals, which in turn may cause melanocytes to increase melanin production and create pigmentation spots.
What are free radicals?
Put simply, free radicals are chemical side-products of the body’s physiological processes. Whenever food is metabolized, the body initiates chemical reactions involving oxygen – oxidation – that release free radicals.
Even the healthiest lifestyle cannot avoid free radicals altogether. Fortunately, these free radicals are relatively harmless because the body produces its own neutralising countermeasures.
Some free radical enter the body from the outside, however. Chemicals in make-up, air pollution, and the sun’s UV rays are all sources of external free radicals. These non-bodily free radicals tend to be more harmful as the body is unable to purge all of them all the time.
Can pigmentation marks be treated?
You can try to prevent and reduce pigmentation spots in several ways:
- Avoid sunlight and use appropriate sun protection;
- Certain salves and creams contain ingredients that can help reduce pigmentation spots. Be careful what you use on your face, however, because some of these product contain highly aggressive chemicals;
- Laser therapy can be helpful for removing pigmentation marks. The bursts of light destroy melanin inside the cells to reduce the dark discolouration.
How can CBD Oil help against pigmentation spots?
We all know that true beauty resides within – and CBD Oil is the perfect embodiment of this maxim! Our human physiology encompasses a multitude of processes that are constantly trying to preserve the body’s internal balance or homeostasis. These processes are governed by a single overarching system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS directs and coordinates all processes to maintain a dynamic state of balance while our environment keeps changing. Scientists have found endocannabinoid receptors all throughout the body, including in the skin.
CBD Oil is uniquely capable of interacting with the ECS. The cannabinoids in the oil are capable of influencing the receptors of the endocannabinoid system. In doing so, cannabidiol helps keep your skin healthy while protecting it by ensuring hormonal balance, countering inflammation, and regulating production of suet and melanin.
CBD Oil has antioxidant properties and essential fatty acids
CBD is an antioxidant. Antioxidants are chemicals that counter oxidation in skin cells. This allows antioxidants to help the body neutralise free radicals, preventing them from harming skin or other tissues. This is how CBD Oil can help prevent pigmentation spots and keep your skin healthy and vibrant!
CBD Oil contains high concentrations of essential fatty acids that nourish and hydrate the skin. Sadly, we cannot produce our own essential fatty acids, so applying CBD products onto your skin can help maintain a smooth, soft, and supple skin.
CBD Oil against skin problems
In addition to hydrating the skin, CBD also has soothing properties that can help calm your skin as well as your mind! This makes CBD Oil a great candidate to relieve rashes, dry skin, and even eczema or psoriasis. It has also been proven effective in case of scar tissue. CBD Oil can help heal wounds faster and reduce scarring. Even wrinkles can be prevented by applying CBD Skincare products! Since any skin damage can lead to hyperpigmentation, making sure your skin is well-nourished and calm can help reduce and prevent pigmentation marks.
CBD Oil for hormonal balance
We have seen how hormones can be a cause of hyperpigmentation. CBD can interact with the endocannabinoid system to balance the endocrine system. This allows CBD Oil to restore hormonal balance after disruptions to prevent pigmentation spots before they arise.
CBD Oil against pigmentation spots
The antioxidant properties of CBD Oil can help brighten your skin and help pigmentation spots fade. They aid your skin in recovering from free radical influences like UV radiation, which in turn helps stop and prevent hyperpigmentation.
The best CBD products against hyperpigmentation
Our Full Spectrum CBD Oil and premium CBD Tablets can both help you stay healthy from within by working with the ECS to stop pigmentation spots. And don’t forget that CBD Oil can also be applied directly onto the skin for topical effects!
CBD Argan Skincare
Our CBD Argan Cream and CBD Argan Salve were specifically designed for direct skin application. They let you put CBD to use as a local antioxidant, while added vitamins ease skin recovery and improve its overall condition. Their organic argan oil is a rich source of antioxidants and essential fatty acids for additional hyperpigmentation reduction and prevention. Always keep in mind that CBD Skincare is no sunscreen product: always use high-SPF protection to shield your skin from bright sunlight and harmful UV rays on top of your CBD beauty products!