vs Potting Mix:
Hydroponic growing can achieve some very impressive results. But so can the more conventional approaches of growing in “dirt”. In-ground or container plantings use a soil medium that contains at least some organic materials.
I’ve seen amazing results using fertile soil (for raised beds) and potting mix (for containers). The buffering capacity of a soil or potting mix helps to store excess nutrients. It also reduces the impact of pH changes. In other words, soil is forgiving!
Traditional soil sciences focus around in-ground materials. The building blocks of a native soil are derived from rocks that have been weathered down over a long period of time. As the rocks are broken down, they result in several basic particle sizes. Each particle size directly effects your soil’s fertility and its ability to store or drain water.
Basic Soil Particles:
SAND – largest particle size, water draining additive. The pH of clean, washed sand is near-neutral (7.0). Its density is very high, adding a lot of weight if used in containers. Only use coarse (builder’s) sand (to avoid compaction). It is not very expensive and the added weight could be useful for top-heavy containers that do not need to be moved much. However, sand has poor water retention capacity. As a result, it is not normally used for container gardening. But most importantly, it should never be used in sub-irrigated planters.
SILT – a dust-like sediment derived from rock and mineral particles. Its particle size is smaller than sand but larger than clay. It has unique properties, feeling powdery when dry and slippery when wet. It is highly mobile and is subject to both water and wind erosion. Silty soils tend to be more fertile. However, silts should not be incorporated into container mixes.
CLAY – smallest particle size. Soils with high clay content take longer to absorb water but can retain that water for a longer period. This results in higher fertility than sandy soils because plant nutrients are retained. Clay soils can withstand wind and water erosion better than sandy soils, because the particles are more tightly connected. When used as an additive to sawdust or pine bark, some clays have increased plant production. But clay is not used in container gardening and should never be incorporated into SIPs.
Top Soil vs Potting Mix:
These basic elements of our soils are usually available in varying ratios, resulting in unique soil characteristics. Combined with organic matter, you get a soil that can work quite well at providing structure and fertility to our plants. This is particularly true when you account for living soil biology. Earthworms for example serve a role in structurally altering the soil, creating air chambers that enhance aeration.
However, when placed in a container, sand, silt and clay won’t perform nearly as well. The containers develop a perched water table causing excess water build up at the bottom. And the soil biology is greatly impaired. Thus, plants grown in containers work best in a “potting mix” rather than traditional garden soil. The physical characteristics of the mix are finely tuned for container growing, ensuring optimal results.
It’s a lot more complex than just digging up some dirt and throwing it into a pot! Some gardeners have tried to do just that, only to find that their containers turned into a mucky mess. And of course, their plants suffered as a result, even dying of root rot! Let’s take a closer look at your container mix options to ensure maximum success in your garden.
Selecting Potting Mix
If you’re new to container gardening, Miracle-Gro Potting Mix works fine for beginners. The Moisture Control includes coir, to help with moisture irregularities. If you choose to try these out, look for the 2 cubic foot bags. These will be your best value.
Some people dislike the Scott’s Miracle-Gro brand, particularly since Scotts distributes Roundup (Glyphosate) a nasty herbicide produced by Monsanto. An alternative would be to go with Pro-Mix or some other reputable brand that you can find locally. If you are determined to avoid any Scotts branded products, there are lots of reputable bagged mixes out there -you just need to look!
Be prepared to refresh your mix after the 1st growing season. Once those nutrients have been depleted, the potting mix is rendered impotent . (nobody wants that). But couldn’t you just make the whole potting mix from scratch. Sure! Let’s look at common components used in growing mediums. This will enable you to make your own specialized mix!
When placed in a container, sand, silt and clay won’t perform nearly as well. The containers develop a perched water table causing excess water build up at the bottom. And the soil biology is greatly impaired. Thus, plants grown in containers work best in a potting mix rather than traditional garden soil.
Tips on Filling Containers With Garden Soils
Planting in containers allows you to work your green thumb in small spaces, such as a condo patio or balcony. You can also use containers to dress up and define areas of a larger yard by placing them near the house, seating areas or flower bed islands. Regardless of the size of the container and the type, such as wood or terra cotta, adding the right kind of soil will help keep your plants healthy.
Before you add anything to your containers, move them around to various locations until you’re satisfied with their placement; once you add gravel and soil, the containers often become too heavy to move. Adding a layer of gravel to the bottom of the containers helps them drain properly. Your plants need about 12 inches of soil for adequate root systems with a soil-free lip of about an inch at the top of the container. If the container is deeper than 12 inches, placing filler such as empty capped plastic bottles or plastic bags filled with foam packing peanuts in the bottom of the pot can help you use less garden soil in the container. Leave 13 inches free above the filler for the soil.
For the container planting to be successful, the soil must allow for proper drainage while retaining enough moisture to feed the root systems. The plants also need air space within the soil, as densely-packed soil can choke a plant’s roots. To meet the needs of growing plants in a container, garden soil must be mixed with other components. While store-bought potting soil often includes fertilizer, making your own potting soil from garden soil requires added compost or a fertilizer that meets the needs of the plants you plan to add to the container. The fertilizer can be added later, such as spraying a water-soluble fertilizer designed for flowers over your flowering plants.
Garden Soil Only
Although it’s tempting to use only soil out of your existing garden to fill your container, it’s usually not the best idea. Garden soil tends to be denser than potting soil, so it doesn’t drain well, and it requires aeration from worms or grubs. It may also contain weed seeds or fungus spores that can grow in your container. While it’s not a good idea to use only garden soil in your containers, you can add a small amount to other components in your container to help the mixture retain moisture and nutrients. Use garden soil that you dig from several inches below the surface to try to find the cleanest soil available, free of weed seeds and harmful mites and insects that reside on the soil surface.
Your recipe for potting soil using your garden soil as a base should contain a mineral component, such as perlite, builder’s sand or vermiculite, and an organic one, such as compost or peat moss. A simple soil mix includes equal parts of garden soil, peat moss and sand. Tailoring the mixture to the type of plant in your container means using additional sand and less peat moss for cacti or extra compost for a container vegetable garden, for example. Flowering plants usually require more water than green plants, so a mixture that retains more moisture in the soil — such as one with a little extra garden soil or peat moss — is best for them.
Tips on Filling Containers With Garden Soils. Planting in containers allows you to work your green thumb in small spaces, such as a condo patio or balcony. You can also use containers to dress up and define areas of a larger yard by placing them near the house, seating areas or flower bed islands. Regardless of the …